Mars Konzern Navigationsmenü
Mars Deutschland ist die deutsche Tochter von Mars Incorporated. Das Unternehmen startete mit der Produktion von Heimtierfertignahrung. wurden. Seit über Jahren produziert Mars mit Stolz Süßigkeiten, nahrhafte Mahlzeiten und viele Ihrer Lieblingsprodukte. Erfahren Sie, warum wir bereit sind, ein Teil. Mars Petcare. Heute haben wir mehr als Mitarbeiter, die sich in unseren Geschäftsbereichen Ernährung, Gesundheit und Dienstleistungen mit Stolz um die. Mitarbeiter in 78 Ländern sorgen dafür, dass der Familienkonzern Mars Incorporated einen Jahresumsatz von 35 Milliarden. Victoria Mars bei einem ihrer seltenen öffentlichen Auftritte. Hier nimmt die Aufsichtsratschefin des Mars-Konzerns an einem Forum für.
Victoria Mars Mars Incorporated Ein rotes Plastikteil in einem Schokoriegel (Mini-Snickers) löste Anfang eine gigantische Aktion aus. Der Konzern Mars. Mars Deutschland ist die deutsche Tochter von Mars Incorporated. Das Unternehmen startete mit der Produktion von Heimtierfertignahrung. wurden. Seit über Jahren produziert Mars mit Stolz Süßigkeiten, nahrhafte Mahlzeiten und viele Ihrer Lieblingsprodukte. Erfahren Sie, warum wir bereit sind, ein Teil.
Mars Konzern VideoWhat Will Happen On Mars By 2058!
Mars Konzern InhaltsverzeichnisBeste Spielothek in Ralingen finden soll in einer niederländischen Fabrik die Verschlusskappe eines Rohres abgefallen und in vielen scharfkantigen Einzelteilen in die verschiedenen Riegel verschmolzen more info sein. Ziel war es, die bereits in England erfolgreiche Fertignahrung in Dosen und Schalen, aber auch Click the following article in Deutschland zu etablieren. Wirtschaft Von der Empfehlung zur Pflicht Masken für alle? Article source muss man Victoria Mars zugutehalten, dass sie sich für ein Mitglied der Mars-Dynastie schon recht weit aus ihrer Komfortzone gewagt hat. Ein riesiger Markt, der ständig neue Innovationen verlangt. Mitarbeitern war es angeblich verboten, den Vater in ihrer Gegenwart auch nur zu erwähnen. Kostenlose Fortbildungen und ein Mentorenprogramm sorgen dafür, dass sich die Mitarbeiter weiterentwickeln können. Dieser Artikel oder nachfolgende Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen beispielsweise Einzelnachweisen ausgestattet. Für Wrigley arbeiten in Deutschland vorwiegend am Standort Unterhaching ca. In den vergangenen zwei Jahren war sie mehrmals auf Branchenkonferenzen aufgetreten. Ein riesiger Markt, der ständig neue Innovationen verlangt. Wie sich jetzt source, war die Freude wohl etwas vorschnell. Manche Familien arbeiten in der dritten Generation für Mars. Auch bei der Diversität ist der Konzern vorbildlich: 70 Article source der Mitarbeiter gehören einer ethnischen Minderheit an oder sind Ausländer, https://coinderby.co/online-casino-no-deposit-bonus-keep-winnings/paypald.php Prozent der Manager sind weiblich. Jeder Angestellte bekommt am ersten Arbeitstag eine seitige Hochglanzbroschüre, die die fünf Unternehmensprinzipien erklärt.
The seasonal frosting of areas near the southern ice cap results in the formation of transparent 1-metre-thick slabs of dry ice above the ground.
With the arrival of spring, sunlight warms the subsurface and pressure from subliming CO 2 builds up under a slab, elevating and ultimately rupturing it.
This leads to geyser-like eruptions of CO 2 gas mixed with dark basaltic sand or dust. This process is rapid, observed happening in the space of a few days, weeks or months, a rate of change rather unusual in geology — especially for Mars.
The gas rushing underneath a slab to the site of a geyser carves a spiderweb-like pattern of radial channels under the ice, the process being the inverted equivalent of an erosion network formed by water draining through a single plughole.
They began by establishing that most of Mars's surface features were permanent and by more precisely determining the planet's rotation period.
In , Mädler combined ten years of observations and drew the first map of Mars. Rather than giving names to the various markings, Beer and Mädler simply designated them with letters; Meridian Bay Sinus Meridiani was thus feature " a ".
Today, features on Mars are named from a variety of sources. Albedo features are named for classical mythology.
Large valleys are named for the word "Mars" or "star" in various languages; small valleys are named for rivers. Large albedo features retain many of the older names, but are often updated to reflect new knowledge of the nature of the features.
The paler plains covered with dust and sand rich in reddish iron oxides were once thought of as Martian "continents" and given names like Arabia Terra land of Arabia or Amazonis Planitia Amazonian plain.
The largest dark feature seen from Earth is Syrtis Major Planum. Mars's equator is defined by its rotation, but the location of its Prime Meridian was specified, as was Earth's at Greenwich , by choice of an arbitrary point; Mädler and Beer selected a line for their first maps of Mars in After the spacecraft Mariner 9 provided extensive imagery of Mars in , a small crater later called Airy-0 , located in the Sinus Meridiani "Middle Bay" or "Meridian Bay" , was chosen by Merton Davies of the Rand Corporation  for the definition of 0.
Because Mars has no oceans and hence no " sea level ", a zero-elevation surface had to be selected as a reference level; this is called the areoid  of Mars, analogous to the terrestrial geoid.
For mapping purposes, the United States Geological Survey divides the surface of Mars into thirty cartographic quadrangles , each named for a classical albedo feature it contains.
The quadrangles can be seen and explored via the interactive image map below. The dichotomy of Martian topography is striking: northern plains flattened by lava flows contrast with the southern highlands, pitted and cratered by ancient impacts.
Research in has presented evidence regarding a theory proposed in postulating that, four billion years ago, the northern hemisphere of Mars was struck by an object one-tenth to two-thirds the size of Earth's Moon.
Mars is located closer to the asteroid belt , so it has an increased chance of being struck by materials from that source. Mars is more likely to be struck by short-period comets , i.
Martian craters can have a morphology that suggests the ground became wet after the meteor impacted. The shield volcano Olympus Mons Mount Olympus is an extinct volcano in the vast upland region Tharsis , which contains several other large volcanoes.
Olympus Mons is roughly three times the height of Mount Everest , which in comparison stands at just over 8.
The length of Valles Marineris is equivalent to the length of Europe and extends across one-fifth the circumference of Mars. Valles Marineris was formed due to the swelling of the Tharsis area, which caused the crust in the area of Valles Marineris to collapse.
Because light does not reach the floor of most of the caves, it is possible that they extend much deeper than these lower estimates and widen below the surface.
The interiors of these caverns may be protected from micrometeoroids, UV radiation, solar flares and high energy particles that bombard the planet's surface.
Compared to Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is quite rarefied. The resulting mean surface pressure is only 0. The scale height of the atmosphere is about Methane has been detected in the Martian atmosphere ;   it occurs in extended plumes, and the profiles imply that the methane is released from discrete regions.
The concentration of methane fluctuates from about 0. Estimates of its lifetime range from 0. Methane could be produced by non-biological process such as serpentinization involving water, carbon dioxide, and the mineral olivine , which is known to be common on Mars.
But even if rover missions determine that microscopic Martian life is the source of the methane, the life forms likely reside far below the surface, outside of the rover's reach.
In , the European Space Agency's Mars Express found an ultraviolet glow coming from "magnetic umbrellas" in the southern hemisphere.
Mars does not have a global magnetic field which guides charged particles entering the atmosphere.
Mars has multiple umbrella-shaped magnetic fields mainly in the southern hemisphere, which are remnants of a global field that decayed billions of years ago.
Magnetic fields in the solar wind drape over Mars, into the atmosphere, and the charged particles follow the solar wind magnetic field lines into the atmosphere, causing auroras to occur outside the magnetic umbrellas.
On March 18, , NASA reported the detection of an aurora that is not fully understood and an unexplained dust cloud in the atmosphere of Mars.
In September , NASA reported radiation levels on the surface of the planet Mars were temporarily doubled , and were associated with an aurora 25 times brighter than any observed earlier, due to a massive, and unexpected, solar storm in the middle of the month.
Of all the planets in the Solar System, the seasons of Mars are the most Earth-like, due to the similar tilts of the two planets' rotational axes.
The lengths of the Martian seasons are about twice those of Earth's because Mars's greater distance from the Sun leads to the Martian year being about two Earth years long.
If Mars had an Earth-like orbit, its seasons would be similar to Earth's because its axial tilt is similar to Earth's.
The comparatively large eccentricity of the Martian orbit has a significant effect. Mars is near perihelion when it is summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the north, and near aphelion when it is winter in the southern hemisphere and summer in the north.
As a result, the seasons in the southern hemisphere are more extreme and the seasons in the northern are milder than would otherwise be the case.
These can vary from a storm over a small area, to gigantic storms that cover the entire planet. They tend to occur when Mars is closest to the Sun, and have been shown to increase the global temperature.
The solar day or sol on Mars is only slightly longer than an Earth day: 24 hours, 39 minutes, and The axial tilt of Mars is In the present day epoch, the orientation of the north pole of Mars is close to the star Deneb.
Mars has a relatively pronounced orbital eccentricity of about 0. It is known that in the past, Mars has had a much more circular orbit.
At one point, 1. For the last 35, years, the orbit of Mars has been getting slightly more eccentric because of the gravitational effects of the other planets.
The closest distance between Earth and Mars will continue to mildly decrease for the next 25, years. The current understanding of planetary habitability —the ability of a world to develop environmental conditions favorable to the emergence of life—favors planets that have liquid water on their surface.
Most often this requires the orbit of a planet to lie within the habitable zone , which for the Sun extends from just beyond Venus to about the semi-major axis of Mars.
The past flow of liquid water demonstrates the planet's potential for habitability. Recent evidence has suggested that any water on the Martian surface may have been too salty and acidic to support regular terrestrial life.
The lack of a magnetosphere and the extremely thin atmosphere of Mars are a challenge: the planet has little heat transfer across its surface, poor insulation against bombardment of the solar wind and insufficient atmospheric pressure to retain water in a liquid form water instead sublimes to a gaseous state.
Mars is nearly, or perhaps totally, geologically dead; the end of volcanic activity has apparently stopped the recycling of chemicals and minerals between the surface and interior of the planet.
In situ investigations have been performed on Mars by the Viking landers , Spirit and Opportunity rovers, Phoenix lander, and Curiosity rover.
Evidence suggests that the planet was once significantly more habitable than it is today, but whether living organisms ever existed there remains unknown.
The Viking probes of the mids carried experiments designed to detect microorganisms in Martian soil at their respective landing sites and had positive results, including a temporary increase of CO 2 production on exposure to water and nutrients.
This sign of life was later disputed by scientists, resulting in a continuing debate, with NASA scientist Gilbert Levin asserting that Viking may have found life.
A re-analysis of the Viking data, in light of modern knowledge of extremophile forms of life, has suggested that the Viking tests were not sophisticated enough to detect these forms of life.
The tests could even have killed a hypothetical life form. This suggests a severely arid environment, with minimal or no liquid water interaction.
Scientists have proposed that carbonate globules found in meteorite ALH , which is thought to have originated from Mars, could be fossilized microbes extant on Mars when the meteorite was blasted from the Martian surface by a meteor strike some 15 million years ago.
This proposal has been met with skepticism, and an exclusively inorganic origin for the shapes has been proposed. Small quantities of methane and formaldehyde detected by Mars orbiters are both claimed to be possible evidence for life, as these chemical compounds would quickly break down in the Martian atmosphere.
Impact glass , formed by the impact of meteors, which on Earth can preserve signs of life, has been found on the surface of the impact craters on Mars.
In May , evidence of the earliest known life on land on Earth may have been found in 3. These findings may be helpful in deciding where best to search for early signs of life on the planet Mars.
In early , media reports speculated that certain rock features at a site called Jura looked like a type of fossil, but project scientists say the formations likely resulted from a geological process at the bottom of an ancient drying lakebed, and are related to mineral veins in the area similar to gypsum crystals.
On June 7, , NASA announced that the Curiosity rover had discovered organic compounds in sedimentary rocks dating to three billion years old,  indicating that some of the building blocks for life were present.
In July , scientists reported the discovery of a subglacial lake on Mars, the first known stable body of water on the planet. It sits 1.
It is mostly surrounded by higher ground except on its eastern side, where there is a depression.
Asteroid capture is a long-favored theory, but their origin remains uncertain. Mars was the Roman counterpart of Ares. From the surface of Mars, the motions of Phobos and Deimos appear different from that of the Moon.
Phobos rises in the west, sets in the east, and rises again in just 11 hours. Deimos, being only just outside synchronous orbit — where the orbital period would match the planet's period of rotation — rises as expected in the east but slowly.
Despite the hour orbit of Deimos, 2. Because the orbit of Phobos is below synchronous altitude, the tidal forces from the planet Mars are gradually lowering its orbit.
In about 50 million years, it could either crash into Mars's surface or break up into a ring structure around the planet.
The origin of the two moons is not well understood. Their low albedo and carbonaceous chondrite composition have been regarded as similar to asteroids, supporting the capture theory.
The unstable orbit of Phobos would seem to point towards a relatively recent capture. But both have circular orbits , near the equator, which is unusual for captured objects and the required capture dynamics are complex.
Accretion early in the history of Mars is plausible, but would not account for a composition resembling asteroids rather than Mars itself, if that is confirmed.
A third possibility is the involvement of a third body or a type of impact disruption. Although the VNIR spectra of the moons of Mars resemble those of outer-belt asteroids, the thermal infrared spectra of Phobos are reported to be inconsistent with chondrites of any class.
Dozens of crewless spacecraft , including orbiters , landers , and rovers , have been sent to Mars by the Soviet Union , the United States , Europe , and India to study the planet's surface, climate, and geology.
The Mars Orbiter Mission used a Hohmann transfer orbit to escape Earth's gravitational influence and catapult into a nine-month-long voyage to Mars.
The mission is the first successful Asian interplanetary mission. The mission arrived at Mars in November The probe will make a global study of the Martian atmosphere.
Several plans for a human mission to Mars have been proposed throughout the 20th century and into the 21st century, but no active plan has an arrival date sooner than the s.
With the presence of various orbiters, landers, and rovers, it is possible to practice astronomy from Mars.
Although Mars's moon Phobos appears about one-third the angular diameter of the full moon on Earth, Deimos appears more or less star-like, looking only slightly brighter than Venus does from Earth.
Various phenomena seen from Earth have also been observed from Mars, such as meteors and auroras. A transit of Earth will be seen from Mars on November 10, On October 19, , Comet Siding Spring passed extremely close to Mars, so close that the coma may have enveloped Mars.
NASA 's Spirit rover has taken pictures of a greenish-brown, mud-colored landscape with blue-grey rocks and patches of light red sand.
When least favorably positioned, it can be lost in the Sun's glare for months at a time. At its most favorable times—at or year intervals, and always between late July and late September—a lot of surface detail can be seen with a telescope.
Especially noticeable, even at low magnification, are the polar ice caps. As Mars approaches opposition, it begins a period of retrograde motion , which means it will appear to move backwards in a looping motion with respect to the background stars.
The duration of this retrograde motion lasts for about 72 days, and Mars reaches its peak luminosity in the middle of this motion.
The time of opposition can occur as much as 8. As Mars approaches opposition it begins a period of retrograde motion , which makes it appear to move backwards in a looping motion relative to the background stars.
The duration of this retrograde motion is about 72 days. This occurred when Mars was one day from opposition and about three days from its perihelion , making it particularly easy to see from Earth.
The last time it came so close is estimated to have been on September 12, 57, BC , the next time being in For instance, the minimum distance on August 22, , was 0.
Every 15 to 17 years Mars comes into opposition near its perihelion. These perihelic oppositions make a closer approach to earth than other oppositions which occur every 2.
Mars comes into perihelic opposition in , and , with and being close to perihelic opposition. The history of observations of Mars is marked by the oppositions of Mars, when the planet is closest to Earth and hence is most easily visible, which occur every couple of years.
Even more notable are the perihelic oppositions of Mars, which occur every 15 or 17 years and are distinguished because Mars is close to perihelion, making it even closer to Earth.
The ancient Sumerians believed that Mars was Nergal , the god of war and plague. For Mars, they knew that the planet made 37 synodic periods , or 42 circuits of the zodiac, every 79 years.
They invented arithmetic methods for making minor corrections to the predicted positions of the planets. In the fourth century BCE, Aristotle noted that Mars disappeared behind the Moon during an occultation , indicating that the planet was farther away.
Ptolemy's model and his collective work on astronomy was presented in the multi-volume collection Almagest , which became the authoritative treatise on Western astronomy for the next fourteen centuries.
During the seventeenth century, Tycho Brahe measured the diurnal parallax of Mars that Johannes Kepler used to make a preliminary calculation of the relative distance to the planet.
This was first performed by Giovanni Domenico Cassini in The early parallax measurements were hampered by the quality of the instruments.
By the 19th century, the resolution of telescopes reached a level sufficient for surface features to be identified.
A perihelic opposition of Mars occurred on September 5, These maps notably contained features he called canali , which were later shown to be an optical illusion.
These canali were supposedly long, straight lines on the surface of Mars, to which he gave names of famous rivers on Earth.
His term, which means "channels" or "grooves", was popularly mistranslated in English as "canals". The observatory was used for the exploration of Mars during the last good opportunity in and the following less favorable oppositions.
He published several books on Mars and life on the planet, which had a great influence on the public. The seasonal changes consisting of the diminishing of the polar caps and the dark areas formed during Martian summer in combination with the canals led to speculation about life on Mars, and it was a long-held belief that Mars contained vast seas and vegetation.
The telescope never reached the resolution required to give proof to any speculations. As bigger telescopes were used, fewer long, straight canali were observed.
Even in the s articles were published on Martian biology, putting aside explanations other than life for the seasonal changes on Mars.
Detailed scenarios for the metabolism and chemical cycles for a functional ecosystem have been published.
Once spacecraft visited the planet during NASA's Mariner missions in the s and 70s, these concepts were radically broken. The results of the Viking life-detection experiments aided an intermission in which the hypothesis of a hostile, dead planet was generally accepted.
Mariner 9 and Viking allowed better maps of Mars to be made using the data from these missions, and another major leap forward was the Mars Global Surveyor mission, launched in and operated until late , that allowed complete, extremely detailed maps of the Martian topography, magnetic field and surface minerals to be obtained.
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Express continued exploring with new instruments, and supporting lander missions. NASA provides two online tools: Mars Trek , which provides visualizations of the planet using data from 50 years of exploration, and Experience Curiosity , which simulates traveling on Mars in 3-D with Curiosity.
Mars is named after the Roman god of war. In different cultures, Mars represents masculinity and youth.
Its symbol , a circle with an arrow pointing out to the upper right, is used as a symbol for the male gender. The many failures in Mars exploration probes resulted in a satirical counter-culture blaming the failures on an Earth-Mars " Bermuda Triangle ", a " Mars Curse ", or a "Great Galactic Ghoul" that feeds on Martian spacecraft.
The fashionable idea that Mars was populated by intelligent Martians exploded in the late 19th century. Schiaparelli's "canali" observations combined with Percival Lowell 's books on the subject put forward the standard notion of a planet that was a drying, cooling, dying world with ancient civilizations constructing irrigation works.
Many other observations and proclamations by notable personalities added to what has been termed "Mars Fever".
In a interview Tesla said:. It was some time afterward when the thought flashed upon my mind that the disturbances I had observed might be due to an intelligent control.
Although I could not decipher their meaning, it was impossible for me to think of them as having been entirely accidental.
The feeling is constantly growing on me that I had been the first to hear the greeting of one planet to another. Tesla's theories gained support from Lord Kelvin who, while visiting the United States in , was reported to have said that he thought Tesla had picked up Martian signals being sent to the United States.
In a New York Times article in , Edward Charles Pickering , director of the Harvard College Observatory , said that they had received a telegram from Lowell Observatory in Arizona that seemed to confirm that Mars was trying to communicate with Earth.
Early in December , we received from Lowell Observatory in Arizona a telegram that a shaft of light had been seen to project from Mars the Lowell observatory makes a specialty of Mars lasting seventy minutes.
I wired these facts to Europe and sent out neostyle copies through this country. The observer there is a careful, reliable man and there is no reason to doubt that the light existed.
It was given as from a well-known geographical point on Mars. That was all. Now the story has gone the world over. In Europe it is stated that I have been in communication with Mars, and all sorts of exaggerations have spring up.
Whatever the light was, we have no means of knowing. Whether it had intelligence or not, no one can say.
It is absolutely inexplicable. Pickering later proposed creating a set of mirrors in Texas , intended to signal Martians.
In recent decades, the high-resolution mapping of the surface of Mars, culminating in Mars Global Surveyor , revealed no artifacts of habitation by "intelligent" life, but pseudoscientific speculation about intelligent life on Mars continues from commentators such as Richard C.
Reminiscent of the canali controversy, these speculations are based on small scale features perceived in the spacecraft images, such as "pyramids" and the " Face on Mars ".
Planetary astronomer Carl Sagan wrote:. Mars has become a kind of mythic arena onto which we have projected our Earthly hopes and fears.
The depiction of Mars in fiction has been stimulated by its dramatic red color and by nineteenth century scientific speculations that its surface conditions might support not just life but intelligent life.
Wells ' The War of the Worlds , published in , in which Martians seek to escape their dying planet by invading Earth.
Heinlein stories before the mid-sixties. Jonathan Swift made reference to the moons of Mars, about years before their actual discovery by Asaph Hall , detailing reasonably accurate descriptions of their orbits, in the 19th chapter of his novel Gulliver's Travels.
A comic figure of an intelligent Martian, Marvin the Martian , appeared in Haredevil Hare as a character in the Looney Tunes animated cartoons of Warner Brothers , and has continued as part of popular culture to the present.
After the Mariner and Viking spacecraft had returned pictures of Mars as it really is, an apparently lifeless and canal-less world, these ideas about Mars had to be abandoned, and a vogue for accurate, realist depictions of human colonies on Mars developed, the best known of which may be Kim Stanley Robinson 's Mars trilogy.
Pseudo-scientific speculations about the Face on Mars and other enigmatic landmarks spotted by space probes have meant that ancient civilizations continue to be a popular theme in science fiction, especially in film.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the planet. For the deity, see Mars mythology. For other uses, see Mars disambiguation.
Fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. Pictured in natural color in [a]. Semi-major axis. Orbital period.
Synodic period. Average orbital speed. Mean anomaly. Equatorial radius. Polar radius. Surface area. Mean density. Surface gravity.
Moment of inertia factor. Escape velocity. Sidereal rotation period. Axial tilt. Apparent magnitude. Angular diameter. Surface pressure. Play media.
Animation showing major features of Mars. Main article: Geology of Mars. Main article: Martian soil. Main article: Water on Mars.
Main article: Martian polar ice caps. North polar early summer water ice cap ; a seasonal layer of carbon dioxide ice forms in winter and disappears in summer.
South polar midsummer ice cap ; the south cap has a permanent carbon dioxide ice cap mixed with water ice. Main article: Geography of Mars.
Further information: Areoid. See also: Category:Surface features of Mars. Main article: List of quadrangles on Mars.
Mare Boreum. Mare Acidalium. Ismenius Lacus. Lunae Palus. Oxia Palus. Syrtis Major. Mare Australe. Main article: Volcanology of Mars.
Main article: Atmosphere of Mars. Main article: Methane on Mars. Main article: Climate of Mars. Dust storms on Mars. June 6, . Locations of the Opportunity and Curiosity rovers are noted.
Main article: Orbit of Mars. Main articles: Moons of Mars , Phobos moon , and Deimos moon. Orbits of Phobos and Deimos to scale.
Main article: Exploration of Mars. Main article: Astronomy on Mars. See also: Solar eclipses on Mars. Phobos transits the Sun Opportunity , March 10, Main article: History of Mars observation.
Map of Mars from the Hubble Space Telescope as seen near the opposition north on top. Main article: Martian canal.
Main articles: Mars in culture and Mars in fiction. Solar System portal. The view is centered on the Aeolis quadrangle , with Gale crater , the landing site of the Curiosity rover , prominently visible just left of center.
The darker, more heavily cratered terrain in the south, Terra Cimmeria , is composed of older terrain than the much smoother and brighter Elysium Planitia to the north.
Geologically recent processes, such as the possible existence of a global ocean in Mars's past, could have helped lower-elevated areas, such as Elysium Planitia, retain a more youthful look.
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LPI Technical Report Mondragon opened 11 new production subsidiaries. Cata pledged to create direct jobs in the Basque Country and to continue the brand names Fagor, Edesa, Aspes, and Splendid.
Mondragon co-operatives are united by a humanist concept of business, a philosophy of participation and solidarity, and a shared business culture.
The culture is rooted in a shared mission and a number of principles, corporate values and business policies.
Over the years, these links have been embodied in a series of operating rules approved on a majority basis by the Co-operative Congresses, which regulate the activity of the Governing Bodies of the corporation Standing Committee, General Council , the Grassroots Co-operatives and the Divisions they belong to, from the organisational, institutional and economic points of view as well as in terms of assets.
This philosophy is complemented by four corporate values: Co-operation , acting as owners and protagonists; Participation , which takes shape as a commitment to management; Social Responsibility , by means of the distribution of wealth based on solidarity; and Innovation , focusing on constant renewal in all areas.
This business culture translates into compliance with a number of Basic Objectives Customer Focus, Development, Innovation, Profitability, People in Co-operation and Involvement in the Community and General Policies approved by the Co-operative Congress, which are taken on board at all the corporation's organisational levels and incorporated into the four-year strategic plans and the annual business plans of the individual co-operatives, divisions, and the corporation as a whole.
At Mondragon, there are agreed-upon wage ratios between executive work and field or factory work which earns a minimum wage.
These ratios range from to in different cooperatives and average That is, the general manager of an average Mondragon cooperative earns no more than 5 times as much as the theoretical minimum wage paid in their cooperative.
For most workers, this ratio is smaller because there are few Mondragon worker-owners that earn minimum wages, because most jobs are somewhat specialized and are classified at higher wage levels.
The wage ratio of a cooperative is decided periodically by its worker-owners through a democratic vote. Compared to similar jobs at local industries, Mondragon managers' wages are considerably lower as some companies pay their best paid managers hundreds of times more than the lowest-paid employee of the company  and equivalent for middle management, technical and professional levels.
Spain's progressive tax rate further reduces any disparity in pay. Mondragon Corporation operates in four areas: finance, industry, retail, and knowledge, with the latter distinguishing Mondragon from other business groups.
The yield obtained from this fund is used to cover long-term retirement, widowhood, and invalidity benefits, complementary to those offered by the Spanish social security system.
The corporation's companies manufacture consumer goods, capital goods , industrial components, products and systems for construction, and services.
MCCTelecom: Telecommunication engineering. Ondoan: Turnkey projects in the energy and environmental sector.
In the leisure and sports area, it manufactures Orbea bicycles, exercise equipment and items for camping, garden and beach.
These machines are complemented by automation and control products for machine tools, packaging machinery, machinery for automating assembly processes and processing wood, forklift trucks, electric transformers, integrated equipment for the catering industry, cold stores, and refrigeration equipment.
Specifically focusing on the automotive sector, the corporation also manufactures a wide variety of dies, molds and tooling for casting iron and aluminium, and occupies a leading position in machinery for the casting sector.
It has different business units such as brakes, axles, suspension, transmission, engines, aluminium wheel rims, fluid conduction, and other internal and external vehicle components.
It also produces components for the main domestic appliance manufacturers in three business areas: white goods, home comfort, and electronics.
And it manufactures flanges and pipe accessories for processing oil-gas, petrochemical plants and power generation, copper and aluminium electrical conductors, and components for conveyors.
Mondragon has constructed buildings and important infrastructure projects. It designs and builds large metallic URSSA , laminated wood and prefabricated concrete structures; supplies prefabricated parts in polymer concrete ; offers solutions for formwork and structures ULMA Group as well as public works machinery and the industrialization of the construction process, including engineering and assembly services.
It also offers a modern language service, manufactures educational equipment, and provides graphic arts services MccGraphics. In , Sales resulting from the export of products abroad and production generated in the subsidiaries located in several different countries: China 15 , France 17 , Poland 8 , Czech Republic 7 , Mexico 8 , Brazil 5 , Germany 4 , Italy 4 , United Kingdom 3 , Romania 3 , United States 4 , Turkey 2 , Portugal 2 , Slovakia 2 , India 5 , Thailand 1 and Morocco 1.
Overall, in these plants provided work for more than 11, people. The corporate industrial park in Kunshan , close to Shanghai houses seven subsidiaries.
In , the industrial cooperatives created 1, jobs, and internationalization continued with production subsidiaries abroad - 3 more than the year before.
Mondragon runs Eroski , one of the leading retail groups all over Spain and in southern France, and maintains close contacts with the French group Les Mousquetaires and the German retailer Edeka , with whom it set up the Alidis international purchasing group in The worker-owners and consumer-members participate in the co-operative's decision-making bodies and management of Eroski.
Retail includes the food group Erkop , for catering, cleaning, stock-breeding, and horticulture with Auzo Lagun , a co-operative in group catering and cleaning of buildings and premises, and integrated service in the health sector.
This process was to be carried out over a number of years. This area has a dual focus: education-training and innovation, which have both been key elements in the development of the corporation.
Training-education is mainly linked to the dynamism of Mondragon University , the significant role that Politeknika Ikastegia Txorierri, Arizmendi Ikastola and Lea Artibai Ikastetxea play in their respective areas and the activity of the Management and Co-operative Development Centre Otalora.
Mondragon University is a co-operative university, which combines the development of knowledge, skills, and values, and maintains close relations with business, especially Mondragon co-operatives.
The 15 technology centers play a fundamental role in the development of the sectors of focus. In Richard D.
Wolff , American professor of economics, hailed the Mondragon set of enterprises, including the good wages it provides for employees, the empowerment of ordinary workers in decision making, and the measure of equality for female workers, as a major success and cited it as a working model of an alternative to the capitalist mode of production.
In an April interview Noam Chomsky said that while Mondragon offers an alternative to capitalism, it was still embedded in a capitalist system which limits Mondragon's decisions: .
Take the most advanced case: Mondragon. Vincent Navarro wrote that from a business perspective, Mondragon is successful in matching efficiency with solidarity and democracy.
However, he writes that the number of employees who are not owners have increased more rapidly than worker-owners, to a point that in some companies, for example in the supermarket chains owned by Mondragon, the first are a much larger group than the second.
In Navarro's view, this establishes a two-tier system - for example, in terms of whom to save in the case the company collapses.
In the collapse of Fagor, the relocation of employees to other companies belonging to Mondragon favored those who were worker-owners, which may affect labor relations: .
Actually, one of the successes of Mondragon was its ability to create a sense of identity among the workers within the company, encouraging an environment of solidarity and collegiality among them, a feeling that also extended although to a much lesser degree to non-worker-owners.
The connection felt by the latter group has somewhat weakened, however, exposing a vulnerable point for the cooperative.
The Mondragon system is one of four case studies analyzed in Capital and the Debt Trap , which summarized evidence claiming that cooperatives tend to last longer and are less susceptible to perverse incentives and other problems of organizational governance than more traditionally managed organizations.
In , a science fiction novel by Kim Stanley Robinson , the Mondragon Corporation has evolved into a planned economy system called the Mondragon Accord.
The Mondragon Corporation already appeared in Robinson's earlier Mars trilogy, as one of the Terran groups involved in the colonization and terraforming of Mars ; the coop is also portrayed as the inspiration of both the bogdanovist movement  and the libertarian-leaning Praxis Corporation  two of the main forces leading the revolution for the independence of Mars.
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